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What are the types and application scope of optical microscope?

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If the standards are not the same, the definition of categories will be different. This is certain.

If you try to answer the question, the answer will focus on the biological field because of the background.

In general, O, N, l and Z will divide optical microscope business into two categories: Life Science and industrial technology according to different user groups (actually different application fields); Due to the increasing number of interdisciplinary, it is inevitable that there will be a certain degree of overlap in the application fields, but the overlap ratio is small, resulting in problems, which are solved internally.

Before the discussion, there are several premises

(1) The discussion mainly focuses on ordinary and conventional optical microscope

(2) Some special types of microscopes are involved to a certain extent

(3) Optical microscopes, especially those used in the field of life sciences, are often playing the role of platforms. Therefore, there will be all kinds of confusion. Please be careful

(4) If we don’t go deep into the complicated light path problem, we can’t reach it

PART ONE:

1. Double optical path design

In the field of life science, most optical microscopes are designed with single optical path; There is a kind of microscope, called stereo microscopes, or solid microscopes, or anatomical microscopes, which is designed with two light paths, that is, a microscope that imitates the human eye path and obtains a stereoscopic positive image of the specimen. The light path is as follows:

The stereomicroscope will have different configurations for different experimental requirements, and different configurations mainly focus on the type of light source, whether it can observe fluorescence, and, of course, whether it needs to install an imaging system. But the biggest difference with other optical microscopes lies in the design of double optical path;

2. Single optical path design

In addition to the above stereoscopic microscopes, other optical microscopes, whether simple or complex, can be generally classified into the category of single light path microscopes, large and super large~~~

In this category, let’s talk about it in detail

2.1 orthomicroscope

Let’s start with the above picture. First, let’s take an upright microscope dm2500 of L. J. and use bx63:

As a matter of fact, it is very simple to judge the ortho microscope. Just look at the position relationship between the objective and the stage

——If the objective is above the stage, it is a ortho microscope;

——If the objective is under the stage, it is an inverted microscope;

Some people asked, isn’t the observation place of L family also two Black Muzzles? Is it the double light path design mentioned before?

No, no!

It should be emphasized that:

(1) In the stereomicroscope, people’s dual light path is from the original light source, which is an independent dual light path. Each light path carries different amount of information, and the image is three-dimensional;

(2) In the ortho microscope, the light path is only a single light path from the light source at the beginning; It’s just to take care of the human beings who need to observe with two eyes that a prism is used to split a light path into two light paths near the end of the light path. The amount of information in each light path is the same, and the image you see is only planar;

For application, the ortho microscope is limited by the distance between the objective and the stage, and is mainly used to observe thin specimens such as pathological sections; Once again, special applications are not mentioned here;

2.2 inverted microscope

Take TS100 as an example

Remember the super simple resolution criteria? Look at the relative position of the objective and the stage – the objective below the stage is an inverted microscope; As for whether it is a single path microscope or a double path microscope, please refer to the above section of ortho microscope;

For the inverted optical microscope, although the distance between the objective and the stage is not very long, you should know that the objective is under the stage, pro! The space above the stage is so big! You can not only put slices and Petri dishes, but also culture bottles and porous plates. You can even consider fixing living animals on them

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